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CORRUPTION IN NIGERIA POLICE FORCE & EFFECTS ON DEMOCRACY


ABSTRACT
The study examines the causes and the effects of corruption practices in Nigeria police force and how it has affected the country’s democracy. In Nigeria, police corruption is an unfortunate confusing phenomena penetrating the Nigeria police force and ensuring vulnerability in Nigeria democracy over the years. The Nigeria police role is defined in terms of national security imperatives such as the protection of life and property as well as fundamental human rights of citizens, crime control, maintenance of law and order and other related responsibilities of effect policing but they have failed to execute this responsibilities and role effectively. This study utilized the secondary data which was sourced form already existing literates such as textbooks, journals, internet materials etc. The findings of this study reveal that the corruption in Nigeria police force is a product of political, economic and social factors which has been identified as a major causes of its pervasiveness, it is therefore, recommended that ‘structural reforms’ is much needed to curb this menace. The Nigeria police must restructure its social, political and economic structure towards substantively democratic policy and promoting economic efficiency.



CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
        Nigeria police began with a thirty member consular guard formed in Lagos colony in 1861. In 1876 a one thousand two hundred (1,200) member armed paramilitary Hausa constabulary was formed. In 1896 the Lagos police established a similar force, the Niger Coast constabulary was formed in Calabar in 1894 under the newly proclaimed Niger Coast protectorate in the North, the Royal Niger company set up the royal Niger company constabulary in 1888 with headquarters at Lokoja when the protectorates of Northern and Southern Nigeria were proclaimed in the early 1900s, part of the royal Niger company constabulary became the Northern Nigeria police and part of the Niger Coast constabulary became the southern Nigeria police. Northern and southern Nigeria was amalgamated in 1914 but their police forces were not merged until 1930 forming the Nigeria police force, headquartered in Lagos. During the colonial period, most police were associated with local government (native authorities). In the 1960s, under the first republic, these forces were first regionalized and then nationalized. The Nigeria police force performed conventional police functions and was responsible for internal security generally, for supporting the prison, immigration and customs service1.
        Democracy is built on the equality of citizens, the freedom of these citizens to associate with one another for the realization of their ideals, defense and promotion of their interests and the freedom of these citizens to choose between the different political platforms of various political parties and candidates and see to the actualization of the platform they voted for, if their choice win. But in Nigeria, people have effectively been disenfranchised by their own circumstances on the one hand, and their leader’s perfidy on the other. As a result, Nigeria is approaching a situation where democracy is being practiced without democrats and elections are being conducted with scant regard for the electorate2.
        The biggest blunder of Nigeria’s ruling class has been its failure to build strong and stable social system to provide the kind of atmosphere that democracy needs to take root and flourish. The insecurity of lives and properties has become rampant in the country, which is a more reason why we ardently need viable polity that is a Nigeria in where there is free movement of people, goods and services and country in which residency and participation rights are guaranteed for all Nigerians whenever they may choose to live.
        After political independence of Nigeria, in 1960 the Nigeria police forces (NPF) were humble, honest and concerted institution. This can be explicitly acknowledged when they were deployed in 1963 as part of a UN mission to the then Zaire to monitor and keep peace. They were highly respected and trusted by the people of Zaire because of their exhibition of professionalism, dedication and honesty. However the image and good name of Nigeria police force (NPF) started plummeting, precisely from two decade ago and fulsomely the present precarious state of its existence. The present situation of this once robust and understanding institution is seriously under threat3.
        The police is arguably the most visible agent of government and citizens often assess the character of a government through its police force. This is because the police are the guardians of society. To a large extent, the growth, actions and behaviors of the police as an institution not only reflect the political and economic character of society but also mirror what those in power are willing or able to tolerate or condone or perhaps ever demand of the police. Thus any adequate analysis of the problem and challenges of the Nigeria police must start with the appreciation of the history and dynamics of its development, which from its infancy in 1861 was characterized and cultured in impurity, incivility, brutality, a lack of transparency and accountability all of which eventually metamorphosed into large scale corruption which has affected Nigeria’s democracy.
        Furthermore, the police demand bribes from private car owners and they do not respect the fundamental human rights of citizens acting against a democratic state. Transporters and motorists without valid vehicle particular are guaranteed of movement, if only they could pay a certain amount of money and this happens on a regular basis. Hence, both commercial and private vehicle owners may not renew their licenses as long as they are willing to part ways with some amount of money. The Nigeria police have also become tools in the hands of politicians, allowing themselves to be used for different election malpractices across the nation during election period4.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
        It has showed how institutionalized extortion, a profound lack of political will to reform the force and impurity combine to make police corruption a deeply embedded problem. ‘Good policing is the bedrock for the rule of law and public safety’, said Corinne Dufka. The long-term failure of the Nigerian authorities to address police bribery, extortion and wholesale embezzlement threatens the basic rights of all Nigerians. The police extort and demand bribes from commercial and private vehicle owners and they do not respect the fundamental human right of the citizens which constitute the democratic state. Now drivers do not even bother to acquire the necessary documents since they can buy their way out. Also some businessmen are confident to transport illegal item within or across the country as far they can bribe policemen.
        The Nigeria police force was an agency established by government for the purpose of enforcing law and order in the society but it is quite unfortunate that the men of this force have over the years refused to align themselves with the goals and objectives of the institution. Corruption in the police has been in existence from time immemorial and it has continued to grow among men who were supposed to help in eradicating this menace from high ranking police officers to the constables, these men have become enemies of the people because they have failed in rendering the needed assistance to the public whenever and wherever. The police create more trouble for the citizens rather than protect their lives and properties. The groups of policemen in the country today are dishonest, indiscipline and corrupt. They are individuals who need to be charged with different crimes of bribery and corruption5.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
i. How has the corrupt practice in Nigeria police force affected our democracy?
ii. How long has the corruption practice being in existence?
iii. What are the root causes of corruption in Nigeria police force?
iv. What are the categories of policemen involve in this menace?
v. What can be done to stop corruption practice in Nigeria police force?
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
i. To examine the effect of corruption in Nigeria police force on our democracy.
ii. To find out how long corruption has being in Nigeria police.
iii. To identify the root causes of corruption in Nigeria police force.
iv. To know the extent of government intervention in combating the menace of corruption in Nigeria.
v. To suggest recommendations on how to prevent corruption among Nigeria police in the sustenance and democracy in Nigeria.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
        The study will be very imperative because it tends to proffer panacea to the problem of endemic corruption in Nigeria police force and how it has affected the democracy of the country by providing solution or recommendations to Nigeria police force itself. The study will also be important and useful because of its intention to shed light on the reason for corruption practice in Nigeria police force and the reason why the previous solutions to the problem were abortive.
1.6 METHODOLOGY
        Secondary data will provide data for this study. Quantitative method will be used for the analysis of the data while analysis presentation of data is desirable. The secondary data will be sourced from journals, library information, textbooks, internet materials etc.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
        Much of this discourse shall concern corruption practice in Nigeria police force since the commencement of the fourth republic and how it has affected democracy in Nigeria.
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
        Like it always happens in the social studied, I am sure I will be having encounters with some problems. The most of these problems is the collection of information especially from the policemen; I have as part of my respondent.
1.9 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
        Every study requires appropriate theory to provide guide of its course. Theory is a set of facts or explanation about a study, theories of corruption will be appropriate for the provision of frame. Several theorists have devised the poverty argument as being responsible for the corruption especially among the poor on the society. The argument is that the desire to keep body and soul together is the driving force behind their corrupt tendencies some of the theories of corruption are the idealistic, the functional and dialectical materialistic approaches.
THE IDEALISTIC APPROACH TO CORRUPTION
        The position according to S.A Nkom ‘it is people’s idea which determine their want of life and the organization of their society’. This position assumes that the corruption tendencies or developing tendencies of members of any particular society is a function of social cultural arrangement of the society. In other words, the nature and character of social and moral values prevailing in the society have usually great deal of influence in the character of people in the society either positively or negatively. The proponent for this school of thought see corruption as result of selfish nature of human being which is promoted by some social structure6.
        Most Africa societies gift during practice constituted one of the nature of their traditional societies and its is seen as an advantage for venal practices. The expectation then was that rulers should be wealthy through the giving from their people so as to be able to organize social festival as well as other social activities. The idealist approach is further sub-divided into two; the traditionalist see the adoption of western social values and attitudes as the root cause of increase corruption in our society and shaken the democracy. Professor Abdullahi Smith one of the traditionalistic has argued that the source of corruption in Nigeria lies in the increase in penetration and acceptance of western in individualistic and materialistic social values which has diminished ore democracy. He says;
        No one can doubt that in the present century the western countries (particular, though not exclusively M.S.A) have become the scene of societies. Corruption of every conceivable sort developing on a scale probably on precedent in the recorded history. The phenomenal rise of organized deceit in public life. Unprecedented increase in organized crime and general. Lawlessness profiteering and sharp practice of all kinds of an ever increasing scale industry and commerce, the spread of organized vice, the delay of sexual morality, the disintegration of family life: all ensuring in conflict and  violence.
        Smith has the Nigeria elite of their pend of imitating western pattern of thought and social organization. He believes this imitation is the bane of rampant corruption that is presently characterized Nigeria society of which police officers is not exception. The high level of corruption according to Smith is inevitable given the value system which emphasis liberalism individualism and acquisitive materialism without emphasis restart and sense of responsibility for the public good.
        The modernist idealist on the other hand captive corruption as something inherent to the institutional and attitudinal remnants of our traditional society of our traditional society. Mydial remnant of our traditional society, for example one of the modernists contend that: ‘corruption is embedded in the institutional and attitudinal remnants of African traditional soceity’9.
        The suggestion there is that police officers in order to adhere to the taste of traditional obligation, they engage in all sort of abuses of public service which includes corruption practices which endanger the democracy of the country.
THE FUNCTIONALIST APPROACH TO CORRUPTION
        The proponent of this school of thought assume that deviant attitude is a product of social organization of any given society, that force some people and not some in the society to adopt deviant means. Merton for example posits that: 
        Deviant behavior is a result of the social structure of a society, which exerts heritable pressure on certain member of the society to engage in deviant or non deviant behaviors.
        Chinoy another functionalist also postulate that:
        Society sets goal, interest and prescribe means by which the members there of are expected to pursue and achieve these goals. But where the means are not tangential to the goals, an individual depending on his adaptive capability may become disorganized and hence deviant8.
        Robert Merton further elaborates by arguing that corrupt behavior result not from ‘pathological personalities’ but from the structure and culture of the society. He explains that all societies prescribe institutionalized means of achieving culturally defined goals. Some members of the society however, find themselves at a disadvantage within social structure (class differences) as they do no have equal opportunity of realizing the shared societal goals. These inferential opportunities further house the changes of the less privileged people because society places undue emphasis on the means of attaining such goals.
        This according to Merton result in a state of wormlessness from this perspective one could understand why Nigeria police engage in corrupt behavior because undue emphasis are placed on our materialistic societal goals without deficient emphasis on the legitimate means of attaining such goals and it has negatively affected Nigeria democracy because of lack of full performance in the state (Nigeria)9.
THE DIALECTICAL MATERIALIST APPROACH TO CORRUPTION
        The exponent of this school of thought begin by criticizing and rejecting both idealistic and functionalism approaches to the corruption in Nigeria because it’s the bedrock of Nigeria police corruption and it’s embedded in it. The idealist school is criticized forces simplistic illusory ideas about corruption.
        The functionalists in the other hand are criticized for being conservative by valuing the inherent class interest conflict societies like ours. They also reject the functional purpose in the society and that corruption emanate from decadent moral value, for example Karl Max leader of materialist approach argue that rather than peoples consciousness determining their well being, it is the way society organized the production, distribution and exchange of food and services that determine their material condition. Thus materialist approach contends that corruption in Nigeria is purely an elite affair and diminishes the country’s democracy. This school rejects the view that Nigeria masses are corrupt.
        Well the three theories mentioned above are very significant because they have actually provide adequate explanation for the corruption habit of Nigeria police and how it affects the democracy of the country one way or the other.
1.10 CONCEPTUAL CLARIFICATIONS
Police: This is an organization that is responsible for maintaining law and order in a state.
Democracy: Government by the people; a form of government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised through the elected representative.

REFERENCES
World Encyclopedia of Police Force and Correctional System, Second Edition, Gale 2006.
Ada Musa “Journal on Democracy in Nigeria and Nigerians 2002.
The Nigeria Police Force: A Threat or a Pride? Adaeze Okonkwo 2004.
Corruption practices and Other Related offence Commission at the Police Service Commission Retreat August 2008 
Bribery and Corruption Among Men of the Police Force. Aregbeshola Bolaji Samon.
Nkom S.A “Ethical Revolution: The Futility of Bourgeois Idealism’ Present at the Nigeria Anthropological and Sociological Associate Abu Zaira 10-13 May 1982.  
Abdullahi S. “The Development of Corruption Text of Ali Akilo Memorial Essay Delivered on 21 Jan 1976, Published in New Nigeria 26 Jan 1976.
Chinoye ‘Society an Introduction to Sociology (Random House New York 1967) p. 453-454.
Mention R. “Social Theory and Social Structure’ (Glencoe iii, The Free Press 1957). www.tgsflow.blogspot.com

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 CONCEPT OF CORRUPTION
        Corruption as a social concept has no specific definition. It has been defined by so many scholars based on different perspectives and purposes for which its used. What could be pointed out in these definitions as common dominator is the ‘deviance from norms’, for example, Professor Abdullahi Smith defined corruption as;
        ‘The diversion of resources from the betterment of the community to the gain of individuals at the expenses of the community and its peopel1
        Thus corruption means any behavior that goes against both social and legal norms. In line with this, some describe corruption as an act of stealing, telling lies etc different views are actually held on corruption by different scholars. According to Encyclopedia of social science (2nd edition) corruption means the perversion or abandonment of standard.
        The definition also supported the view the corruption is not a narrow phenomenon, it is a social phenomenon. The encyclopedia of social sciences further explain
        Corruption refers to the abandonment of expected standard by those in authority for the sake of unsanctioned personal advantage. In the business sphere, company director who sells his private property to the company at an inflated price and at the expenses of shareholders who are interest they are suppose to safeguard. Lawyers, architects and other professionals are similarly faulty of corruption of they take advantage of their client to make under personal gain2
        Patrick Henieke in his own contribution see corruption as ‘the force diversion of materials wealth into private hands intended for the effective achievement of socially desirable and resulting in deprivation and improvement to the advantage of few3.
        The encyclopedia America international edition vol. 8 see corruption as a general term for the misuse of a pubic position of trust for private gain4.
        Also Onigu Otite’s view corruption foes like this;
The perversion of integrity or state of affairs through bribery, favour or moral depravity.  
        He further says, ‘when at least two parties have interacted to charge the structure of processes of society or the behavior of functionaries in order to produce dishonest, unfaithful of defiled situation we may say that corruption has taken places’.
Further more he says;
        Corruption involves the infection of additional but improper transactions aimed at changing the normal course of events and adhering judgments and positions of trust. It consists in the orders and receivers. Use of informal, extra legal or illegal acts to facilitate matters. It is in this sense that one sees corruption as a lubricator of the social system, a means to over come economic obstacle and bureaucratic red-tapism.
Ezekeshi Oby view corruption as;
        The state of moral deterioration, indicating debased or depraved character in a person5.
        The definitions above are different due to different perspective of the authors, but we should note that despite the different in the definition that is base on the perspective there is common element that similarize the definition. The common element is the ‘deviance from socio legal arrangement’.
2.2 CAUSES OF CORRUPTION
        The theories used in this study have point to the reasons for the corrupt practices in any society. In addition to these seven causes of corruption shall be identified.
1.   Opportunity to engage in corruption with impurity: To them if there is chance of any crime without penalty there will be pervasion of corruption practice thus suggest that improper junction that is not improve on Nigeria police force contributed to their community of their corruption practice.
2.   Lack of democracy: According to them there would never be transparency and accountability where democracy does not exist. When there no transparency and accountability that will ensure corruption (abuse of power) in the pubic office.
3.   Weakness of post colonial state: Here they talk about incapability of the post colonial state to settle most of their responsibility which include payment of good living salaries, wages and provision of sufficient employment engender corrupt tendencies in the public offices and among the unemployed citizens.
4.   Poor law enforcement agencies: These according to them will flourish corrupt behaviors. Since adequate law enforcement agencies is responsible for curtailment or imposition to sanction on corruption like extorting by NPF.
5.   Pervasive poverty: Their view here is that poor salary earners and unemployed citizen for survival and to upgrade standard of living will involve in any means.
6.   Morbid (greed and materialism): Their view here is about capitalist system like ours, which to them cause corruption. According to the commission furring in capitalist practice and capitalist and capitalist value of accumulation of materialism wealth encourage corruption. This explain why police force will like to also want to accumulate wealth and be used by capitalist as instrument of their operation and which will in turn empower police force to abuse power in their hand.
7.   Cultural lag/moral decay: It is forced here that society with cultural, lag and ethical fall will face hindrance of social development that society with cultural degradation will face series of deviance.
The views of Ibrahim Lame explain why Nigeria police engage in corruption. Since the behavior of the people in a particular society greatly depend on the social networking of the society. Nigeria police corruption is affected by all the mentioned by factors by Ibrahim Lame6.
Corruption in Africa and Nigeria in particular has been argued to be product of colonialism. They explain that colonial administration ushered in alien structure that destroyed our traditional social structure and that are obnoxious to the development of Africa societies. Akinseje, for instance he said that;
‘However the inherited government machinery characterized by bifurcated legal order authoritarianism, the absence of accountability to the poor majority, and heirs, that endowed officials with power to make and implement key decision franking them feat discretion’7.
There is no doubt that those features are terrible and responsible for the outrageous situation in Nigeria including the Nigeria police force.
All the features are characterized with corruption what the post colonial state experienced was a function of colonial inheritance. In addition to the colonial features, there is also constitution without constitutionalism which also aggravates the problem of Nigeria. The constitution minus constitutionalism according to this view it’s a problem because constitution without constitutionalism will cause a great problem of uselessness of the constitution and lawlessness in the society. Police devising mean to exploit the people for their own economic advantage is allow in such environment.

2.3 THE ROLE/CONTRIBUTION OF THE POLICE IN THE DEMOCRATIC PROCESS OF NIGERIA
        It is the responsibility of the police to maintain law and order in the society. This may be attained by the use of force where all necessary civil attempts have proven to abortive. Such instances include taking an individual who resists arrest or in dispersing an unlawful crowd or assembly.
        Among many changes the practice of democracy brought to the police was the shift of authority from a military source to the inspector general of police. The status of an ‘officer’ recognized under law as an ‘officer of the law’ which interprets for a policemen- a status denied the police under successive military regimes was finally established under civilian government in 1999. Under this dispensation a military personal bears the status of a civilian under the law and is treated as such by the police7.
        Since the democratization of the Nigeria polity on 29th May 1999, the major concern has been about meeting the challenges of consolidating the hard won democracy. In this Herculean, task, the police, under an ideal setting, standout as one of the institutional structures capable of making meaningful contributions to the process. Its role is defined in terms of national security imperatives such as the protection of life and property is well as fundamental human rights of citizens, crime control, maintenance of law and order and other related responsibilities of effective policy. The police is suppose to serve as a viable instrument for the deepening of democratic values in Nigeria instead they have tragically served undermine it8.

REFERENCES
Smith Abdullahi ‘The Development of Corruption Text of Aliakilo Memorial essay Delivered on 21 Jan 1976 Published in New Nigeria 26 Jan 1976. p. 10.
Encyclopedia of Social Science 2nd Edition.
Patrick Heuieke in Femi Odekunle (ed) ‘Nigeria University Press 1980. p. 96.
Encyclopedia America International Edition Vol.
Ezekehi Oby in Ayodele Aderinwale (ed) Corruption Democracy and Human Rights in West Africa ‘Summary Report African Leadership Forum’. Cotonou Sept. 1994.
Ibrahim Lame and Femi Odekunle ‘Fighting Corruption and Organized Crime’ Nigeria Spectrum Book Limited.
Samuel Onougha “The Role of the Nigeria Police on the Maintenance of peace and Security’ (Journal – Bulkload.org). 2006. p. 42.
Shola J. Omotola “The Police and the Challenges of Sustainable Democracy in Nigeria: Contributions and Constraints (‘Journal’-Docdrive.com) 2007.p. 58. www.tgsflow.blogspot.com

CHAPTER THREE
3.1 THE HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE ORIGIN OF NIGERIA POLICE FORCE
        The origin of Nigeria police force can be traced to colonial period. The organization of police in Nigeria was informed by the economic objective of British in Nigeria and more importantly the zeal to protect their economic course. This shall be found in the words of Professor Tamuno: ‘The establishment of the police in Nigeria was inspired by the nature of British in the country and reaction of the indigenous people towards the imperial activiteis’1.
        Thus the British colonial government establishes wrong people as police force in the territory and organized them as constabulary and paramilitary forces. As noted by Nwolise:
        “Most of the men who volunteered to be recruited at the period were strangers and out casts in the ear perceived as know deviants ex-slaves and criminals but who being illiterate essentially unemployed and without independent means of livelihood and were to be in a position to obey and carry out the order of the colonial master without question or critical analysis.”
        Even the training five to the scandalous pioneer set of people in Nigeria policing were anti-people. According Nwolise, ‘governor Dentor in colonial era refused to feed in Nigeria police offices to the metropolitan police college in England for proper civil policing. Instead he sent them to Royal high college where policemen are trained in paramilitary fashion in order to master how to curtain rebellious element. All these were done in order for colonial governors to establish and maintain repressive police force that would be appropriate for their imperial activiteis2.
        Afemika note that the forces were employed in various colonial wars and punitive expedition and also used in maintaining the exploration and repression of labour. Therefore, police in Nigeria became security risk to the people rather than being agents of people’s security. They became the enemies of the people rather than being friends of the people. Police himself became over zealous, violent brutal following their frequent repressive deployment against workers during colonial era3. Professor Tamuno shows in his word that ‘police earned the displeasure of some trade union leaders and members, a factor which did not promote good public relation as far as workers were concered’. He made the example of the deployment of police for violence and brutal breaking of strike as killing of twenty-one mines workers and fifty wounded during the Emguso colliery strike in 1949, the development of military and police to suppress the Aba women’s riot in 1929 resulted to the death of fifty-five women and serious injury to more than fifty women4.
Nwoliso point this’
        “As a result of distrust and lack of love, confidence and co-operation between the people and the police, no parent would allow their children to join the police force and the people refused to assist the police in any way in combating crime in the society.”
        The history of Nigeria police shows that the various forces were structured to regulate and regiment the indigenous people and facilitate their exploitation. Police enjoy immunity that means they can do anything without being punished.
Onega notes that:
        The burden of colonial policing was the subordinate of the national interest of the people to the political and economic interest of the state through armed mobile patrol raids arrests and detention, the raiding of labour camps and violent suppression of strikes, the police ensure the creation supply and discipline of the proletarian labour force required by colonialism5.
        The foregoing quotation shows the legacy bequeathed by British to Nigeria police force and its responsibility for the widespread and institutionalism of police corruption exploitation and violence during colonial period and contemporary Nigeria. Generally police corruption increases under dictatorial political system and exploitive economic relations which has affected our democracy. Afemika have shown this in his works:
        ‘Police violence did not end with Nigeria independence from colonial domination and oppressions this may be explained in terms of two primary causes of police violence political and economic inequalities. The political source of police violence is attributed to authoritarian political and judicial structure6.
        The political economic inequalities, authoritarian political and judicial structure in post colonial Nigeria encouraged political manipulation of police by the post colonial rulers which ensure the continuation of police corruption.
        The first republic (1960-1966) and second republic (1979-1983) were characterized by political intolerance among political manipulation of the police. It was reported that the government of the western Nigeria during the first republic (1960-66) embarked on mass recruitment into local authority forces of things and party statement against whom the police protect. Similarly in the northern region, political opponents were arrested by native authority and marched through the street with handcuffs. The military rules also inflate the culture of violence corruption and create immunity in Nigeria police force. Nigeria new magazine reported that under the successive military regime, uniformed men in the police, army, navy, air force, customs and uniformed paramilitary professions inflicted violence on their fellow citizens especially during election period7.   
3.2 NIGERIA POLICE AND DEMOCRACY
        How can a democratic country, while governing itself, provide freedoms for the citizens and at the same time allow the police to enforce the laws of that country? The answer depends on what role such a country would like to see the police perform. Hopefully the police will be able to uphold law and order while respecting the rights of the citizens at the same time.
        The concept of democracy has received varying definition and interpretations from scholars and political observers depending on the ideological learning or interest of the contending scholars. Samuel Lipset offered one of the initially recognized classifications of contemporary democracy which hinges on majority rule and minority rights. Morlino further builds on Lipsets hypothesis by describing a democratic system as a set of institutions and rules that allow competition and participation for all citizens considered as equals, characterized by free, fair and recurring elections.
        The Nigeria police are suppose to perform conventional functions and responsible for internal security generally; for supporting the prison; immigration, customs services and for performing military duties within or outside Nigeria as directed but reverse is the case because corruption in Nigeria police is hydra-headed and has also eaten deep into the fabrics of the force, which has affected the nations democracy negatively. Making men of the force indulging in extrajudicial activities and election malpractices.
        The Nigeria police as set up by the act in our constitution is a body of enlisted men and women whose duties are to keep order and enforce regulations. This is to say that their duty is to ensure the safety of both lives and properties entrusted into their care (that is the lives of the Nigerian citizens).
        The Nigeria police, many will argue have not done well enough in the discharge of its duties because of the fact that there have almost always been lapses in the discharge of its duties to the Nigerian citizens. The reason for this is not far fetched, as they have been found wanting in many areas such as bribe taking, co-operating with criminals, giving support to questionable characters, false witnessing destruction of evidence and exhibits, extrajudicial killing, victimization of innocent citizens, false accusation etc.
        The Nigeria police, others will say have not done badly in their duties to their father land because it has been reported overtime, for example their participation in peace keeping operation that they have excelled and lived up to the expectations of both the Nigeria polite and the host nation at different times. To further buttress this, it is on record that the current Nigeria national anthem musical composition was done by the Nigeria police. The Nigeria police have over time helped in bringing about peace in the land after civil unrest. They continue to regulate, arrest and prosecute questionable characters and by so doing reduced criminal activities in the land.
        The role of the Nigeria police therefore will be very difficult to asses because there are no proper documentation of its activities and have not done its self justice by blowing both hot and cool. By this I mean to say that the chameleonic behavior of the police will never give it the credit it deserve considering the fact that it is ill equipped, little or no goal manpower training, no good remuneration and above all little or no respect from the public.
        Coming to their role in our democratic set up they have in some ways and case done well but painfully done badly in others. Though the police by the laws of our land are expected to be loyal and responsible to the leadership of the country, but they do this without regards to the feelings of the people. We have seen case of the assassination of some political figures by would be opponent, the police have never come up with what will call positive arrest and prosecution of would be suspects (i.e. chief Bola Ige, Comrade Olaitan etc) the above named men were murdered in cold blood and their killers are yet to be know or prosecuted.
        We know too well here in Nigeria that most elections are not won and merit but rigged by men who call themselves powerful or kingmakers. In this regard the police have been very capable by aiding these politicians to execute and destroy our nascent democracy.
3.3 EFFORT BY THE NIGERIA GOVERNMENT TO CHECK THE PROBLEM
        Through the military era nothing could be pointed to as anti-corruption program for NPF instead military attitude towards Nigeria police force provoked or stirred corruption with NPF as there was complete neglect of Nigeria police force because they were being perceived as a source of threat by military administrators.
        But the succession of democratic regime ushered in series of anti-corruption initiative to improve the integrity of police force. There is belief that the problem with Nigeria police is mainly the welfare training recruitment remuneration equipment and orientation. This could be observed in the government of Lagos Chief Bola Timbu.
        “If we have to eliminate corruption we have to improve the welfare of the police, increase their salaries more than these with white collar jobs. We have to ask for re-equipment re-orientation of the men, recruitment and repackaging of entire police’.
        The government suggested that there should be an additional incentive to supplement their salaries so as to prevent from collecting money from people.
        In fact the present democratic regime since it inception has tried to stop corruption practices in the Nigeria police force by introducing some improvement.
        The management team of police made great efforts toward improving the condition service of policemen, the efforts are as follows:
i.            Salaries: Regular payment of salaries
ii.          Promotion: Stagnation in ranks has been overcome through regular promotion. All together we have promoted close to 130,000 policemen juice the present management team of the force assumed leadership in 2002.
iii.        Laying of the foundation store for building of a referral standard police hospital for policemen of camp Abuja.
iv.         Interactive session: With inspector, ranks and file.

REFERENCES
Tis Tamuno ‘The Police in Modern Nigeria, Ibadan University Press 1970.
Nwolise OBC “The Nigeria Police in International Peace Keeping under United Nations’ Spectrum Books Limited 2004.
Afemika E. ‘Police Community Violence in Nigeria Centre for Law Enforcement 1988.
Tim Tamuno ‘The Police in Modern Nigeria, Ibdan University Press, 1970, p. 78.
Onega O. “Social Conflicts and Crime Control Colonial Nigeria’. 1993
Afemika E. “Policing and Perception of Police in Nigeria  1988 p. 11.
See Victims Magazine by Committee for the Defence of Human Rights 2002. www.tgsflow.blogspot.com

CHAPTER FOUR
4.1 CONCLUSION
        The study have been able to reveal the widespread of police corruption and how it has affected Nigeria’s democracy. Corruption in the Nigeria police is a phenomena that still have high tendency of pervasiveness and causing more harm in Nigeria. Political, social, economic factors was identified to be responsible for its existence and persistence.
        So in order to solve this outrageous character of Nigeria police force, there should be total restructuring of social, political and economic structure of Nigeria society towards achieving economic equalities, constitutionalism, substantive democracy that will encourage good relationship between the people and police.
4.2 RECOMMENDATIONS
        It is very important to note that the problem with Nigeria police is beyond ‘economic factor to environmental factor’ which includes political factor. So any attempt to solve this problem without considering social, economic and political environment of Nigeria police will become palliative.
        Now to solve the problem, ‘structural reforms’ is much needed. The Nigeria police must restructure its social, political and economic structure towards substantively democratic the polity and promoting economic efficiency.
        Substantive demonstration of Nigeria with constitution is needed to control the problem. The constitutionalism will remove the impurity enjoyed by Nigeria police force and nobody will be above the law. The people must be made to have good knowledge of the constitution of the society and also made similar with it so that there will be an availability of an environment that encourage challenge by anybody against anybody that deviate from the law of the land.
        In other word, environment that will allow ordinary public officers to challenge political leaders if there is deviance in their act.
        Re-orientation and professionalism is needed in the Nigeria police. The orientation of Nigeria police should be change from the punitive expedition inherited from colonial master to civil policing that allowed good relationship between police and the citizen. The definition of the role of Nigeria police towards the citizen should be outlined properly. Certain courses should be provided to all levels of police wit a view of sharpening the professional skills officers and dynamics in covering social, economic and political spheres.
        The national assembly should enact a law to establish police board at the village, divisional and national level, the composition should include elected representatives of community based, organization workers, students, professional association, religious heads, retired police officers and serving police officers within the command. The functions of the board should be as follows:
1.  Promoting effective police services.
2.  Ensuring respect for human right and rule of law by police.
3.  To ensure accountability to the citizen.
4.  To mobilize and promotes support for police legitimate.
5.  To arrange public enlightenment program for police citizen or police functions and power.
Finally, proper improvement of welfare and equipment of police should be taken as a primary priority to increase the standard of policing in Nigeria.

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