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THE ROLE OF PACKAGING IN THE CONTEXT OF ADVERTISING


SECTION ONE
1.1 PACKAGING AND ADVERTISING: TOWARDS A CONCEPTUALIZATION
        Packaging is the science, art and technology of enclosing or protecting product for distribution, storage, sale and use. Wikipedia (2013). It is also referred to as the process of design, evaluation and production of packages. Bixl, Lockart (2003), pointed out that packaging contains various activities such as, contains, protect, preserve, informs or sell. In a common language, it is often said that ‘life is all about packaging’ and that people addresses you the way you dress and package yourself to the public, for this reason, packaging have been integrated into businesses. Institutional, industries and personal use. The role of packaging may include functions such as attracting attention assisting in promotion, provide identification, impact additional information and help its utilization business dictionary.com. (2013).
1.2 BRIEF HISTORY OF PACKAGING
        The practice of packaging is as old as mankind, by antecedence, the first packaging in history relied on natural materials which are available at that time, Basket Reed Wine Kins, wooden boxes, pottery vases, ceramics etc Soroka (2002) opined that the study of old packaging is an important aspect of archeology.
        The earliest recorded use of paper for packaging dates back to 103st when Persian traveler, visiting market in Cairo noted that vegitable, pieces and hardwares were wrapped in paper. For the customers of her they were sold. Iron and tin plated steel were used to make cans in the early 19th century. Diana Twede (2005).
        In 1952 Michigan State University became the first university in the world to offer degree in packaging engineering. Brody A. Marsh (1997).
        In the 20th century, packaging advanced to include Bakchfe closure on boths transparent celephine etc.
        In 1982, the Chicargo Tylenol murders brought increased attention on packaging of pharmaceutical and other domestic goods. In 2003, packaging sector accounted for about 2% of the GNP in developing nations including Nigeria. Seven J. (2007).

1.3 FUNCTIONS OF PACKAGING
        In literature, there are available of opinion among scholars of thought about the functions of packaging, some focuses on the ‘latent’ and ‘manifest’ function, others focuses on the sufficient and necessary function, for example Gasam (2012) divided the functions of packaging into three viz.
a.   Primary functions
b.  Secondary functions
c.   Tertiary functions
The primary function are; protection, storage, loading and transport function.
    The secondary function are sales function, promotional, service and quarrantte function.
    Tertiary function are additional function such as recycling refusal.
    v. Ryan (2004) gave an addendum that there are six mains reasons why packaging is developed and utilized today;
    To protect a product from damages or contamination by microorganism and air, moisture and toxins, the product must be predicted against being droped crushed and vibration its suffers during transportation.
    To keep the product together, to contain it (i.e. that it does not spill), some shapes cannot be easily packaged, for example, certain vegitable, however, there are method of getting around the problem, products such as fruit, juice, (Lacasera, Vijumilk, Chi vita) and sausage such as Gala, super bite, biggi need to be contained in packages that hold them together.
    To identify the product: packaging is the main way products are advertised and identified, product are usually packaged so that customers can identify and recognize it when shepping, packaging 6mg out its colour scheme or logo etc.
    Packaging protect product during transporting and easy transport. A package should be desired to make it easy to transport, move and lift, are also have to consider the shape of such package because bad shape can lead to wastage of space and costly of thousand of such shape need to be transport.
    Stacking and storage: In super market and shops, it must be possible to stock packages so that space is not wasted on the shelves.
1.4 CHARACTERISTICS OF PACKAGING
        Douglas and Isherwood (1984) explained that packaging has various element or sizes
-      Manageability
-      Storageability
-      Cleanability
-      Reusability
-      Impression
-      Service option
-      Durability
-      Recycleability
-      Pleasiness
Packaging have printed textual information including
·        Company name
·        Name of product
·        Product line
·        Suggested usage
·        Ingredient
·        Nutritional information
·        Preview of content
·        History of product discuphet
·        Service information
·        By law production
·        Weight and measures
·        Specific sectoral information
·        Decorative pattern
·        Uniform colour
·        Grafix image
Source: Collesei and Rava (2004): 164-178
        In Nigeria for example, product such as Gala, indomine, Kleen, Area, Milo, Bonnita, peak milk and various domestic and pharmaceutical product have the following information
BB
MD
ED
NAFDAC NO
BARCODE NO
1.5 ADVERTISING
        The concept of advertising is pejorative, this means that it means different thing to different scholars. Advertising is a Latin word ‘ad-vertere’ meaning to turn the mind toward’. It is a form of communication for marketing and used to encourage persuade or manipulate an audience or specific group to continue to take some action, most commonly, it is the desired result is to drive consumer behaviour with respect to a commercial benefit. Commercial advertising often seek to generate increased consumption of their product or services through branding which packaging involves the product name or image with contain qualities in the mind of consumers. Various theoretical models seeks to explain various motive and steps behind advertising the heavenely of effect which include awareness, knowledge, linking, purchase.
        The end-means theory suggest that advertising seek to contain a message or means that leads the consumer to the desired end state. Therefore, advertising is the paid, impersonal one way marketing of a persuasive information from an identified sponsor dissented through channels of mass communication to promote the adoption of good, services and idea. To Mccan and Erickson (1996) advertising is a means by which we make known that we want to sell or what we want to buy. Jefkin (1995) perceived it as a paid information from an identified sponsor through an impersonal medium to a large audience .
        Advertising is usually persuasive as well as trying to convince a target audience to a particular product or service. There are various means of advertising viz
-      Traditional media (mass media)
-      News papers
-      News letters
-      Magazine
-      Television
-      Radio advertising
-      Outdoor advertising
-      Direct mail
-      Social networking (facebook, twitter etc)
-      Personal means etc
1.6 FUNCTIONS OF ADVERTISING
        Several scholars have identified the various functions of advertising. For example Bovee and Aren (1980) identified six functions on marketing perspective viz:
a.   To communicate information about a product for sale.
b.  To identify the similarities and differences among products.
c.   To persuade consumers to use new product.
d.  To stimulate the distribution of a product
e.   To build brand preferences and loyalty
f.    To increase product re-use
Other scholars focused on ‘non market function’ of advertisement such as socio economic, education, information and communication function.
1.7 EFFICIENCY AND EFFECTIVENESS IN ADVERTISING
        The efficiency and effectiveness in advertising mirrors on the ability of advertising activities to actualize its targets or goals. This is based on some pre-requisite as sponged by Frank Jefkins (1973), these includes
a.   Awareness
b.  Knowledge
c.   Desire
d.  Conviction

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